Shookova Galina Valerievna Candidate of Psychological Sciences, Lead Research Officer Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education
Sunnatova Rano Izzatovna Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Lead Research Officer Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education
Abstract. The relevance of research into the psychological aspects of digitalization of education; in particular, the issues of psychological wellbeing of students in the digital educational environment, has significantly increased when modern society collides with the realities of distance learning and realizes the possibility of personal resources and risks created by the format of distance learning. The aim of this work is to study the relationships between the personal characteristics of older adolescents and their possibilities for self-organization of the educational activity of schoolchildren during the period of distance learning. To collect empirical data, we used 4 scales of the author's methodology "Personal resource of a student": responsibility, self-confidence, self-government, volitional control of emotional reactions; the author also used the author's method of identifying the factors of passivity in educational activity "Laziness, or Reasons for unwillingness to learn." On a sample of Moscow schoolchildren in grades 8-11 (n=269), it was shown that in older adolescents, the personal resource of self-organization of life in conditions of distance learning includes such personal properties as volitional control of the emotional sphere, responsibility, adequate self-esteem, and developed skills of selfgovernment. The lack of formation of this particular personal resource gave rise to crisis phenomena in the adolescent's self-organization of educational and daily activities during the period of distance learning. It was also found that a certain emotional-effective state that blocks the activity of the subject of educational activity and is qualified by everyday consciousness as laziness is a number of states of a different nature, the causes of which vary in space from psychophysiological to social, and they themselves are factors of stagnation in the formation of subjectivity in adolescence.
Keywords: older adolescents, subjectivity, personal resource, laziness, self-organization, distance learning.
Distance schooling, which was practiced in most educational institutions of the world in 2020, can be considered as a natural experiment that made it possible to study the psychological aspects of digitalization of education; in particular, the issues of psychological well-being of students in the digital educational environment, the possibilities of personal resources and the risks created by the format of distance learning. The aim of this work is to study the relationships between the personal characteristics of older adolescents and their possibilities for self-organization of the educational activity of schoolchildren during the period of distance learning. In modern psychological science, in the regulation of behavior at the personal level, the position of the leading role of self-assessment processes and reflection dominates. The efficiency of his activities and communication, his personal development depend on the level of self-awareness and self-understanding of a person [Chesnokova, 1977]. In other words, possession of the skills of conscious self-regulation as a dynamic and multi- level controlling metasystem of processes, properties and states aimed at maintaining activity in the conscious advancement and achievement of subjective goals [Morosanova, 2017] is a necessary element of subjectivity.
In the concept of developmental ecopsychology, an ecopsychological model of the formation of subjectivity from the subject of perception to the subject of productive development has been developed [Panov, 2018, 2018a], within the framework of which ideas about its (formation) personal determinants are developed. A method has been developed for diagnosing the personal resource of the development of subjectivity, including older adolescents [Sunnatova, 2019], which allows to verify the hypothesis that in older adolescents the personal resource of self-organization of life in conditions of distance learning includes such personal properties as volitional control of the emotional sphere, responsibility, constructive selfesteem, developed self-management skills. It was also hypothesized that a certain emotional-effective state that blocks the activity of the subject of educational activity and is qualified by everyday consciousness as laziness is a number of states of a different nature, the causes of which vary in space from psychophysiological to social, and they themselves are factors of stagnation in formation subjectivity in adolescence.
The study was conducted in September 2020.
The study sample consisted of 269 Moscow schoolchildren in grades 8-11.
To collect empirical data, we used 4 scales of the author's methodology "Personal resource of a student": responsibility, self-confidence, selfgovernment, volitional control of emotional reactions [Sunnatova, 2019].
The author also used the author's method of identifying the factors of passivity in educational activity "Laziness, or Reasons for unwillingness to learn." Laziness, understood as inaction, as a block for activity, is, in the opinion of both schoolchildren and their parents and teachers, one of the most common psychological reasons for low educational productivity, which means that laziness can be considered an important factor in the formation of subjectivity. At the same time, laziness as a psychological phenomenon encompasses a vast space of various psychological processes, states and qualities, which poses the task of differentiating them and identifying the specifics of various manifestations of laziness.
In modern psychological ideas about laziness, the following conditions for its manifestation in educational activity are distinguished: a decrease in educational motivation, self-doubt, an external locus of control, a destructive psychophysiological state, a low level of conscious self-regulation, destructive relationships with teachers [Yakimanskaya, Vorobyova, 2003; Possokhova, 2011, 2019; Chugui, Kashchenko, 2019; Lenggono, Tentama, 2020; Madsen, 2018; Price, 2021]. These 6 conditions, as well as the hedonistic orientation of the personality and the infantilizing educational environment made up 8 scales of the questionnaire "Laziness, or Reasons for unwillingness to learn."
According to the empirical data obtained, the main reason for the reluctance to study is the lack of appropriate motivation (33.1% of older adolescents), dissatisfaction with the form and content of school education (only 11.3% of students in grades 8-11 demonstrated the presence of motivation for learning activity). Next (30.4% of respondents) are poor health, fatigue (only 1.7% of adolescents noted that they were feeling well); in third place (25%) - lack of constructive attention on the part of teachers. Correlation analysis of the links between the personality traits of schoolchildren and the reasons for unwillingness to learn, or laziness, using Spearman's nonparametric criterion, revealed statistically significant correlations, all of which turned out to be negative. Thus, the personal quality of adolescents "self-management" is inversely related to dissatisfaction with the attitude of teachers to students: it is perceived by schoolchildren as objective, as ignoring the child's personality (-.412, p <0.001). The same negative relationship between self-government and the adolescent's lack of confidence in his academic success (-.466, p <0.001) and with the level of motivation to learn as a condition for personality development and thereby ensuring, among other things, future psychological well-being (-.417, p < 0.001). The reduced psychophysiological state is also negatively associated with the level of self-organization of the adolescent in his life (-.492, p <0.001), the same applies to the hedonistic tendencies of the adolescent (-.461, p <0.001) and the lack of formation of his skills of conscious selfregulation (-.448, p <0.001).
Apparently, the complex of psychological and behavioral manifestations that is characterized by the common word "laziness" can be considered a derivative of some kind of emotional-effective state that stagnates not only the subject's activity in learning activity, but also his ability to self-organize.
Such personal characteristics as responsibility, belief in oneself, selfgovernment and volitional control of emotional reactions can be considered as a personal resource that serves as a condition for the self-organization of the life of older adolescents. It can be assumed that the lack of formation of this particular personal resource gave rise to crisis phenomena in the adolescent's self-organization of educational and daily activities during the period of distance learning. To realize this personal resource in the ability of a student to self-organize his activities, it is necessary to satisfy the needs of older adolescents in subject-subject interaction with teachers and to ensure their safe psychophysiological state. It is known that the constructive interaction of the subjects of the educational process contributes to the formation of educational motivation in the student, self-confidence as in the subject of learning, and the acceptance of responsibility.
So, the empirical data obtained show that the personal resource can be considered as a condition for the formation of subjectivity in older adolescents, and an emotionally effective state that blocks the activity of the subject of educational activity is a factor of stagnation in the formation of subjectivity.
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 This work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 20-013-00667 A "Personal resource for the formation of subjectivity of senior pupils in the modern conditions of school education."